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>Examining collective teacher efficacy and its impact on student performance by Gabriel Inchausti

Student performance in the classroom is impacted by a variety of internal and external factors. While students enter the classroom with their own unique sets of capabilities, it is important to understand how teachers and their beliefs about students influence student performance. This paper examines how teacher beliefs about group efficacy influence student performance in the classroom. To analyze how teachers develop their perceptions on collective teacher efficacy (CTE), Inchausti utilizes the Goddard et al assessment of CTE and examines the four sources CTE. This paper also utilizes Inchausti’s own case study conducted in South America, to evaluates how the use of CTE questionnaires can provide a greater understanding of how to improve collective efficacy in schools.

> Identifying the gap in education skills upon entering university

This report examines the literature available regarding skills students lack when entering university, market research on opportunities to address these issues and data on these issues collected by Professors Without Borders. Original survey data contextualises the gap in the current skills students have upon entering university. This report recommends developing short courses available to secondary students regardless of academic standing in order to increase success in first-year completion and acceptance into university.

> Access to higher education by mature learners in Latin America and the Caribbean

Access to higher education in the Latin American and Caribbean regions has grown significantly since 2000,  but primarily among the younger population. Enrollment rates of adult learners continue to be significantly low. Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean can considerably benefit from better access to higher education institutions for adult learners at economic and social levels. This report considers the major inefficiencies that are affecting the system and makes recommendations for facilitating entry into the system for this cohort of the population.

> The volunteer support of the African diaspora and its effect on African Health Care Systems

In the context of almost universal condemnation of out-migration by healthcare professionals, the contribution made to African health systems by healthcare professionals has been ignored. African health professionals typically cover their own travel, accommodation and subsistence costs to spend time in countries of their birth or heritage, sharing their skills and supporting African healthcare workers in low resource settings. At a time of condemnation of voluntourism by unskilled young people and scepticism about the development benefits of volunteering on the communities with whom the volunteers work, my research seeks to identify the characteristics, motivations, skills, expectations and experiences of the health professionals who periodically travel to Africa to provide their labour for free or at their own expense. This report will ask whether the volunteer support the African diaspora provides to African health care systems can be said to constitute a form of brain gain.

> Disparities in higher education financing between and within countries

Government spending on education across the board is increasing by the year, but what is the point if these investments are not reaching their intended recipients? An overview of global and regional standards will be contrasted with case studies from Sierra Leone, Uganda and India to highlight the growing need for solutions going forward. This report will produce solutions to mitigate corruption and inefficiencies and highlight challenges in executing these solutions.

> Evaluating the impact of agricultural higher education on entrepreneurship: a case of Uganda and Thailand

This study aims to compare the entrepreneurship programs of two agricultural universities, one in Uganda and the other in Thailand. The purpose of this comparison is to identify the best practices and knowledge gaps at both universities. Interviews will be done with course teachers, students and graduates. The intention will be to provide recommendations to both the universities to advance their entrepreneurship programs as well as serve as a secondary source of information for other agricultural institutions looking to develop their own entrepreneurship programs.

Conference Reports

Development, Women and Higher Education

Teaching Tech to Generation Z